Perhaps you give CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) almost every shift, and you consider yourself a code blue champion. Maybe you work on a med-surg unit or in a surgery center that rarely has to code a patient. Despite the ACLS (Advanced Cardiac Life Support) certification card in your wallet, you may find your skills need brushing up on. Below are some tips for ensuring that you are providing excellent CPR.
1. Get your hands on the chest quickly.
As soon as you notice that a patient is pulseless, place your hands on the chest to start compressions while yelling for others to help. Minimize interruptions to CPR.
2. Use your equipment.
If possible, use a stool so that the compressor is at the proper height, and also place a backboard or use the backboard setting on a mattress to get the proper resistance for compressions.
3. Go fast, but not too fast.
Occasionally compressors get so full of adrenaline that they compress at a rate of 120-150, which is too fast to allow for ventricular filling. The rate should be between 100-120. Tip: Music services such as Spotify actually have entire playlists created for the ideal rate of CPR!
4. Depth is important.
Get the proper depth to allow full recoil of the chest. The recommended depth for adults is 2 to 2.4 inches. Sometimes this may mean lifting your hands completely off the chest after each compression.
5. Too much of a good thing.
Pause for breaths without an advanced airway, but also be careful not to “overbag” the patient. Excessive ventilation can increase intrathoracic pressure and decrease coronary perfusion pressure.
6. Use end tidal to measure your compressions.
End tidal carbon dioxide monitoring can reveal the quality of your compressions. End tidal greater than 20 is associated with greater survival outcomes. Values of less than 20 indicate that you need to adjust your rate and depth. If end tidal suddenly jumps into the 40s, you likely have return of spontaneous circulation.
7. Switch compressors to combat fatigue.
Proper CPR is exhausting. Switch every two minutes, and you can give epi every two compressors.
8. Designate a CPR coach.
If you have extra eyes or hands, designate a CPR coach who will monitor the depth and rate of compressions and who will help ensure that compressors are switching appropriately and end tidal is appropriate.
High quality compressions lead to greatly improved patient outcomes.
Stethoscopes dangled around the necks of nurses wearing navy NursesTakeDC t-shirts and big smiles. “Where are y’all from? We’re from Arizona!” More than 800 nurses from 40 U.S. states congregated at the NursesTakeDC Rally on May 5th in Washington, DC. The rally was to support legislation establishing federally mandated requirements for safe nurse-to-patient staffing ratios, while drawing public attention to the staffing crisis in many U.S. hospitals. This was the second such rally; last May, the inaugural event drew about 250 participants to the steps of the U.S. Capitol.
The rally was cosponsored by the grassroots nursing movement Show Me Your Stethoscope, a group that formed spontaneously on Facebook after nurse Janie Harvey Garner watched The View host Joy Behar ask why a nurse in the Miss America pageant was wearing “a doctor’s stethoscope” around her neck. That group now has more than 650,000 members. Other rally sponsors and supporters included the Illinois Nurses Association, Hirenurses.com, Nursebuzz, The Gypsy Nurse, Century Health Services, and UAW Local 2213 Professional Registered Nurses.
The NursesTakeDC rally was originally scheduled to take place on the steps of the Capitol, but thunderstorms and downpours forced the meeting indoors at a hotel in nearby Alexandria, Virginia. Although the setting lacked symbolism, participants still raised handmade posters and shouted rally cries. Rally organizers estimated the weather had an impact on overall attendance, but they were still encouraged by the turnout. After the speakers wrapped up, a group of about 150 nurses headed to the U.S. Capitol steps for photographs and final thoughts.
© 2017 David Miller, RN
Two, Four, Six, Eight, Patient Safety Isn’t Fake
“We aren’t laughing, we want staffing!” Cheers and whistles erupted out of the crowd. After 10 minutes of rally cheers and chants, the gathering turned its attention to the first of many speakers who would highlight issues faced by nurses in every specialty and across the profession. Actress Brooke Anne Smith began by reciting a moving poem about nurse warriors on the front lines.
Event organizer Jalil Johnson then took the stage, giving a keynote speech that addressed the challenges bedside nurses face every day. He spoke about nurses as the foundation of health care, and the unrelenting pressure to perform in deteriorating conditions. While discussing dire staffing situations, Johnson said that he fought every day, “making sure I didn’t give anyone a reason to come after the license I had worked so hard for.”
He discussed the paradox that year after year, nurses are rated the most trusted profession, yet no one trusts nurses when they say they are overworked, overburdened, and practicing in unsafe conditions. Nurses alone are not enough to fight this battle, he said. “To the public, we say: Trust us when we say the industry makes it nearly impossible to deliver the care you need. Trust us when we say we need your support.”
Other NursesTakeDC rally speakers included Katie Duke, Terry Foster, Deena McCollum, Linda Boly, Julie Murray, Catherine Costello, Kelsey Rowell, Leslie Silket, Dan Walter, Nicole Reina, Monique Doughty, Doris Carroll, Charlene Harrod-Owuamana, Debbie Hickman, and Janie Harvey Garner.
The Nurse Staffing Standards for Hospital Patient Safety and Quality Care Act
On May 4th, the day before the rally, Representative Jan Schakowsky (D-IL) and Senator Sherrod Brown (D-OH) reintroduced the latest iterations of the Nurse Staffing Standards for Hospital Patient Safety and Quality Care Act (H.R. 2392 and S. 1063). The bills seek to amend the Public Health Service Act to establish registered nurse-to-patient staffing ratio requirements in hospitals.
In a press release, Rep. Schakowsky’s office writes: “This bill is about saving lives and improving the health of patients by improving nursing care—ensuring that there are adequate numbers of qualified nurses available to provide the highest possible care.” The press release acknowledges that study after study has shown that safe nurse-to-patient staffing ratios result in better care for patients. “It’s time we act on the evidence and the demands of nurses who have been fighting to end to dangerous staffing,” the release continues. “I’m proud to be a partner with nurses across the country in promoting this bill and working to ensure quality care and patient safety.”
Rep. Schakowksy attended last year’s event, but was unable to attend this year. The Nurse Staffing Standards Act is the latest in a string of bills that have been introduced to Congress every session. Previous bills S. 864 and H.R.1602 died in committee last session. S. 864 was first introduced in May of 2009; H.R. 1602 was first introduced in 2004 and has been sponsored seven times so far. Rally co-chair Doris Carroll explained why: “The legislation is reintroduced session after session, and it continues to die in committee because there is no bipartisan support.”
In today’s environment, politics can be touchy. The day before the rally, the House of Representatives passed the American Health Care Act of 2017. Among nurses there are very polarized viewpoints on health care, abortion, assisted suicide, and other controversial topics. In his speech, Johnson acknowledged that not all nurses think alike. “We are a profession divided,” he admitted. “But when it comes to safe staffing, we all agree. This is a movement devoid of partisanship. Staffing is not a partisan issue.”
The proposed text and ratios for the Nurse Staffing Standards Act are below:
A hospital would be required during each shift, except during a declared emergency, to assign a direct care registered nurse to no more than the following number of patients in designated units:
1 patient in an operating room and trauma emergency unit
2 patients in all critical care units, intensive care, labor and delivery, and post anesthesia units
3 patients in antepartum, emergency, pediatrics, step-down, and telemetry units
4 patients in intermediate care nursery, medical/surgical, and acute care psychiatric care units
5 patients in rehabilitation units
6 patients in postpartum (3 couplets) and well-baby nursery units
Rally speakers encouraged nurses to reach out to their representatives in Congress to show support for safe staffing legislation, and handouts for participants detailed how to find representative names and numbers for letter writing campaigns and phone calls.
Where Is Everybody?
When one of the speakers asked why there wasn’t more involvement in the grassroots movement, and why there weren’t more nurses present, several voices called back from the crowd. “Everyone’s working!” one shouted. Another called out, “They don’t have the money!”
“Really, where the heck is everybody else?” one rally participant said. She gestured to the conference room, which at the time held about 100 nurses. This nurse was part of a group attending from New Jersey, including Kate McLaughlin, a registered nurse and founder of NJ Safe Patient Ratios, a group dedicated to the support of safe staffing in New Jersey and promotion of ratio law S. 1280 in New Jersey’s Senate.
“In New Jersey, multiple bills have been introduced, every single session, and nothing ever passes,” McLaughlin said. “In California it was the same thing, and then the tenth year, they involved unions and patients and it finally worked.” She said she started to pay attention to safe staffing laws in her state, and launched a petition on change.org. “I stalked nurses on Facebook and found people that way,” she continued. “Each week, we organize and post the contact information for two state senators.” She is starting a movement in New Jersey, hoping to motivate others to show support for these bills. “It’s an election year,” she said. “Now is the time.”
McLaughlin said her state’s ratio law was first introduced in February 2016, but there has been no vote and no hearings, “which just feels disrespectful.” She was told the governor didn’t support the bill, and “that we might need to wait until there’s a new governor.”
The problem, according to several nurses at the rally, isn’t a lack of awareness. “I think it’s apathy,” McLaughlin said. “This is a profession of predominantly women, and we are taken advantage of. They know we don’t get breaks, but they’re okay with the labor law violations. We’ve somehow accepted that this is normal—this is not normal.”
Carroll also expressed discontent that no one seems to care about this issue. “Why has this taken so long? Why hasn’t California’s success spread like wildfire?” she asked. “Well, health care changed, and it became a multi-billion dollar business for hospitals and insurance companies.”
Dan Walter, another speaker, acknowledged that sometimes nurses do not report safety issues because they fear retribution. Walter is a former political consultant and publisher of HospitalSafetyReviews.com, a web site that he established for nurses to anonymously post about patient safety issues where they work. In his speech, he explained the inspiration for creating the site: “You are the activists and you know what needs to be done. I want people to be able to go there, post, and we will keep it as anonymous as possible so we can protect you.” He expressed hope that this web site will be a powerful platform to improve patient ratios.
How Bad Is Staffing?
Nurses from a hospital in downtown Washington, DC, expressed frustration with the lack of support and resources from hospital administrators. “The other day, we had so many critical patients in the department we ran out of monitors,” one said. Another said that 80% of the nurses who work in her hospital’s emergency department have less than two years’ experience. “The turnover is so high,” she said. “People get so burned out because of the short staffing.”
Just how short are units staffed? “In our ED [emergency department], someone the other night was taking care of seven patients,” one nurse from this group said. “And these were sick patients, people with LVADs [left ventricular assist devices], and ICU patients.” This is common all over the country. A medical-surgical nurse may be taking care of up to eight or more patients at a time.
Llubia Albrechtsen, a registered nurse and family nurse practitioner at the rally, said there have been times she has refused to take on additional patients in the emergency department where she works. “When I have five patients, I need to take a step back and pay more attention, because their conditions may worsen,” she said. “It’s hard, because we could be providing excellent care to many of our patients, but with limited resources we have to do the best we can and hope nothing bad happens.”
Albrechtsen said that although hospital administration makes an effort to listen to nurse concerns about staffing, through town halls or open meetings, not much has changed. “Many areas still work understaffed,” she said.
Why Does Staffing Matter?
A policy brief disseminated at the rally lists the effects of inadequate nurse staffing, including the overwhelming evidence that safe staffing saves lives. High patient-to-nurse ratios lead to poor outcomes and a demonstrated increase in patient morbidity and mortality. Inadequate staffing has been associated with an increase in hospital readmissions, falls, pressure ulcers, hospital-acquired infections, and medication errors.
Poor staffing is expensive. In addition to causing poor patient outcomes, nurse burnout causes injuries, illness, and contributes to the growing nursing shortage. Replacing nurses due to turnover takes between 28 to 110 days, and costs the average hospital $6.2 million per year.
“The health care industry generates $3 trillion annually,” Johnson said in his address. “We are living in an age of greed, where the health care industry measures patient satisfaction by a customer service model. This is prioritized over quality and safety. Reducing burnout, staff retention, and caring for your staff are at the bottom of the barrel of priorities.”
The grassroots movement behind safe staffing is fighting for environments that allow nurses to do their work in the way in which they were trained. “[A nurse’s] work has been diminished to defensive practices; it has been reduced to a list of tasks to complete,” Johnson said. “That is not nursing.”
In Johnson’s final remarks, he spoke to empower nurses to return to their states, hospitals, and colleagues with a message to inspire change. “We have to show up in person, put boots on the ground, and be ready to engage and pull more nurses into this movement,” Johnson said. “Most importantly, we have to believe that with over 3 million registered nurses and over 1 million licensed practical nurses, our profession can come together as one. We will take back our profession and regain control of our practice.”
Another rally is already in the works for next year. The organizers of NursesTakeDC will now direct their focus toward supporting any state that has pending policy and legislation aimed at improving nurse-to-patient ratios and safe staffing. Organizer Carroll said that this year is a learning curve for the organizers, and they hope that next year they will have something even better with an even bigger audience.
“We encourage all nurses, practicing at all levels and in all settings, to unify and support beside nurses in the fight for safe staffing,” said Johnson to a room full of applause and cheers. “We fight for recognition—we will not justify our existence! There is no health care industry without us, and we will determine what is best for our practice and for our patients.”
We know about the dangers of opioid prescriptions: A recent study linked opioid addiction to just one encounter with opioids for pain control, usually prescribed in an emergency department. (To learn more about safe opioid prescription medication patient teaching, read an article here.) The question is, how can you effectively manage pain without opioids? Pain requires frequent assessment and the setting of realistic expectations by a patient and his or her care team. Patients need to know that although it may not be possible for them to feel entirely pain-free, they are still entitled to some level of pain control. Below is a review of non-pharmacological methods for controlling your patients’ pain.
Heat it up or cool it down. Many of us neglect the value that a hot blanket or heating pad or a cold pack or bag of ice can have on our patients’ pain. It may not help with their chronic pain, but for acute pain, applying heat or cold can be very effective. Just monitor the patient’s skin for any burns or skin irritation at the site, and leave heat or cold on for no longer than 15 minutes at a time.
Guided imagery or relaxation. There are several guided imagery scripts you can find online that you can run through with a patient or even print off and hand to a family member at the bedside. Several institutions have caring or healing patient channels that provide relaxing music or imagery exercises.
Distraction. Can you help your patient turn on the TV, or bring them some magazines or books? When patients are lying in a bed with nothing to focus on but their pain, their perception of the pain can increase. Try to distract the patients with music, TV, art therapy, or books. These methods can help a patient alter their perception of pain.
Promote rest. Make sure your patients can get plenty of sleep. We all know that the hospital is ironically one of the worst places to get a good night’s sleep, but sleep deprivation decreases the patient’s pain threshold and increases their stress response. Excessive stimuli should be reduced for patients as much as possible, so take care to eliminate excess noise by closing doors, adjusting the room temperature, and decreasing harsh artificial lighting.
Fed is best. If your patient is able to eat, ensure they are getting adequate nutrition and enough food to feel full. Hospital food can be notoriously unappetizing, but a feeling of hunger can also exacerbate patient perception of pain. If possible, suggest to family or friends that they bring some favorite snacks or meals for the patient to enjoy.
Advocate. Frequent assessment and evaluation of patients’ pain and their response to pain interventions is crucial for our patients. Be sure you are re-assessing frequently and advocating to the physician if you feel that pain is being inadequately managed.
It’s that time of year: almost everyone is being discharged from hospital visits with an antibiotic. From pneumonia to skin infections to strep throat, there are a myriad of reasons your patients may leave with an antibiotic prescription. With microbial resistance on the rise, and because of the many complications of antibiotic use (C. Diff comes to mind), nurses play a crucial role in ensuring medication compliance and proper home use. Below are some tips for making sure you are teaching your patients correctly about their medications—from penicillin to Cipro and beyond.
1. Make sure your patients know to take their antibiotics with food, preferably at mealtimes.
Many antibiotics can upset the stomach or cause gastritis, so avoid taking them on an empty stomach. (The only antibiotics that should be taken on an empty stomach are ampicillin, dicloxacillin, rifabutin, and rifampin.) A heavy meal is not necessary, but a small snack can prevent indigestion.
2. It is imperative that the patient take the full bottle or dispensed amount, even if they start feeling better before completion.
In fact, it is very likely that the patient will feel better before the prescribed amount is finished. Even so, feeling better is not an indication that the bacteria are all gone. Patients who do not complete their entire prescription help promote antibiotic resistance, because any bacteria not killed yet can go on to reproduce with genes that allow them to avoid destruction by common antibiotics. Sometimes, emphasizing to patients that future antibiotics may not work for them can be an effective way to ensure compliance.
3. If the patient has a reaction to an antibiotic he or she needs to call their doctor immediately.
Several antibiotics can cause rashes or hives, or more seriously, an anaphylactic response. It is important to teach your patients to be on alert if it is a medication they’ve never taken before or if they have had reactions in the past.
For some specific classes of antibiotics, some additional teaching is required.
Fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, or moxifloxacin, can cause tendon injuries. Specifically, patients may experience peripheral neuropathy that can have permanent effects. Caution patients to immediately report any symptoms of pain, burning, pins and needles, or tingling or numbness. Rupture of the Achilles tendon is possible even with short-term use of these drugs.
Antibiotic–associated diarrhea is an overgrowth of usually harmless bacteria that live in the GI tract, most usually Clostridium difficile. In severe cases, C. diff can be life-threatening. The antibiotics most likely to cause a C. diff infection are fluoroquinolones and clindamycin, but diarrhea remains a risk when taking any antibiotic. To help prevent cases of C. diff, patients can take an over-the-counter probiotic or eat yogurt with live and active cultures (but yogurt must be ingested three times a day to be effective).
Certain antibiotics, such as tetracyclines (doxycycline) and fluoroquinolones, need to be separated from divalent cations—found in dairy products, antacids, and vitamins—by at least two hours. These antibiotics can also cause gastritis, so it is important to still eat them with a small meal to decrease this effect.
It’s no wonder our patients can be overwhelmed when taking antibiotics—there is a lot of information to remember! But proper patient education can help nurses play a role in preventing microbial resistance and ensuring safe medication compliance.
I would make a wager that most nurses don’t see themselves as innovators, even though we innovate all the time. In fact, nurses are probably some of the most creative, quick-thinking people in the workforce. Whether it’s determining the best way to move a patient, the best way to decrease the number of steps you’re taking, or working out how to prioritize sixteen different orders on four different patients, nurses are constantly analyzing and problem solving. From scrub designers to app designers, nurses are often the brains behind many of health care and technology’s latest developments.
Nurses are authors, musicians, engineers, podcast writers, and inventors. We are a creative bunch who are always trying to make life easier for our patients—and for ourselves. From innovative wound dressings to re-purposing gloves or hospital socks for off-label uses, we are always thinking outside the box. We just never realize it.
Because nurses work at such an individual level it is sometimes difficult for us to see how we could affect change at the system level. And it’s not our fault, either: The infrastructure to scale our solutions to the system-at-large is very underdeveloped. There aren’t many ways for us to showcase our ideas to help bridge gaps in health care. We need design-thinking workshops that let us develop our creative thinking and empower us to innovate. We need to highlight our diverse backgrounds, our unique work environments, and our drive to improve patient care delivery.
In your own nursing unit or department, you could start by thinking of a problem. What irritates you every day? Is there a flow issue in your unit? Do you see any glaring areas for improvement? For example, think about how many steps you take per shift. Could resources be shifted or moved so that you and your colleagues can take fewer steps? Imagine what you need to be more efficient. After all, necessity is the mother of invention—and innovation, too. All ideas are potentially valuable: trust yourself and feel empowered to share your thoughts and innovations with others. The future of health care depends on it.
If you are interested in learning more about health care innovations, the Smithsonian’s Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation is hosting a free program on March 16th with a panel of innovative problem solvers. If you are in the DC area, you can attend the event (and find more details here). If you aren’t a DC local, you may visit the Lemelson Center online to find program highlights or to explore multimedia content.