New Study: Assumptions About Race Affect Quality of Care for Minority Dementia Patients

New Study: Assumptions About Race Affect Quality of Care for Minority Dementia Patients

A new study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine (JAMA IM) found several factors – including staff assumptions about minoritized groups – may play a role in the variability in the quality of care provided to U.S. nursing home residents with advanced dementia 

The study, “Nursing Home Organizational Culture and Staff Perspectives Influencing Variability in Advanced Dementia Care: The ADVANCE Study,” identified organizational factors and staff perceptions at nursing homes that may drive known variability in the type of care provided nursing home residents with advanced dementia, especially in the use of more aggressive interventions like tube-feeding or hospitalizations. These aggressive interventions are considered by many to be markers of poor quality of care, as they often do not promote clinical benefits or comfort among persons with advanced dementia. 

Prior research has shown Black residents (versus white residents and those in facilities in the southeastern part of the United States) get more aggressive care, including greater use of feeding tubes and hospital transfers. 

Ruth Palan Lopez, Ph.D., G.N.P.-B.C., F.A.A.N., Professor and Associate Dean of Research, Jacques Mohr Chair at MGH Institute of Health Professions School of Nursing, and Susan L. Mitchell, M.D., M.P.H., Senior Scientist, Hinda and Arthur Marcus Institute for Aging Research at Hebrew SeniorLife and Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, are the lead authors of the study.   

“The study identified several factors that nursing homes could target to improve delivery of goal-directed care to all residents. One is to improve provider knowledge and communication skills that less aggressive interventions may be more in line with the residents’ wishes and best evidence,” said Dr. Lopez. “For example, many nurses may believe that feeding tubes prolong the life of advanced dementia patients, but this is not borne out by existing studies. Nursing homes need to make sure their staff is aware that hand feeding is better for residents. Based on prior research, aggressive interventions can be less effective compared to less-intensive interventions, like feeding residents manually, while requiring more time of the nursing staff provides better care to their patients.” 

The most concerning finding was that staff in nursing homes had preconceptions that families of Black residents did not want to engage in advance care planning and preferred more aggressive care.                                                                                                   

“Staff preconceptions that Blacks are less willing to engage in advance care planning and want more aggressive care speaks to the need to address systemic racial biases in nursing homes,” said Dr. Mitchell, noting that nursing homes in the United States tend to be racially segregated and low-resource homes tend to have more Black residents. “Achieving health equity for all nursing home residents with advanced dementia must be the driving force behind all efforts aimed at reducing disparities in their care.” 

Researchers conducted 169 staff interviews at 14 nursing homes in four states. They identified factors that were typical of nursing homes that provided less intensity of care including: the quality of the physical environment (e.g., good repair, non-malodorous), the availability of standardized advance care planning, greater staff engagement in shared decision-making, and staff understanding that feeding tubes do not prolong life. Aggressive intervention was considered suboptimal. 

More equitable advanced dementia care, the study concluded, may be achieved by addressing several factors, including staff biases towards Black residents. Other solutions include increasing support and funding for low-resourced facilities, standardizing advance-care planning, and educating staff, patients, and their families about evidenced-based care and goal-directed decision-making in advanced dementia. 

Other researchers collaborating in this study work at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Meyers Primary Care Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Oregon Health & Science University School of Nursing, the University of Tennessee at Martin, Emory Center for Health in Aging and the Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing at Emory University, the Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development at Duke University School of Medicine, and the Geriatrics Research Education and Clinical Center at Veteran Affairs Medicine Center. 


New Survey Reveals Disturbing Facts About Racism Within the Nursing Profession

New Survey Reveals Disturbing Facts About Racism Within the Nursing Profession

According to the findings of a new national survey of nurses by the National Commission to Address Racism in Nursing (the Commission), nearly half reported that there is widespread racism in nursing, demonstrating a substantial problem within the profession. Comprised of leading nursing organizations, the Commission examines the issue of racism within nursing nationwide and describes the impact on nurses, patients, communities, and health care systems to motivate all nurses to confront systemic racism. Integrity calls on the profession and nurses to reflect on two realities, one as the most trusted profession while also being a product of our environment and culture. It is necessary to work toward connecting these two realities.

“My colleagues and I braced ourselves for these findings. Still, we are disturbed, triggered, and unsettled by the glaring data and heartbroken by the personal accounts of nurses,” said Commission Co-Lead and American Nurses Association (ANA) President Ernest J. Grant, PhD, RN, FAAN. “We are even more motivated and committed to doing this important work justice. Racism and those individuals who do not commit to changing their ways but continue to commit racist acts have absolutely no place in the nursing profession.”

According to more than 5,600 survey respondents, racist acts are principally perpetrated by colleagues and those in positions of power. Over half (63%) of nurses surveyed say that they have personally experienced an act of racism in the workplace with the transgressors being either a peer (66%) or a manager or supervisor (60%).

Superiority continues to surface as a primary driver from nurses representing predominantly white groups along with nurses who are advantaged and privileged by unfair structural and systemic practices. These survey findings move beyond the rhetoric to the reality and should serve as a call-to-action for all nurses to confront racism in the profession.

“Structural and systemic practices that allow the racist behaviors of leaders to continue to go unaddressed must be dismantled,” said Commission Co-lead and National Black Nurses Association (NBNA) President and CEO Martha A. Dawson, DNP, RN, FACHE. “As cliché as it sounds, it starts at the top. Leaders must be accountable for their own actions, set an example for their teams and create safe work environments where there is zero-tolerance for racists attitudes, actions, behaviors, and processes. Leaders must also create a climate that gives permission and support to dismantle institutional policies and procedures that underpin practice inequities and inequalities.”

Of those nurses who report that they have witnessed an act of racism in the workplace, 81% say it was directed towards a peer. Nurses say that they have challenged racist treatment in the workplace (57%), but over half (64%) said that their efforts resulted in no change.

“Nurses are ethically and professionally obligated to be allies and to speak up against racism, discrimination, and injustice for our patients and fellow nurses,” said Commission Co-Lead and National Coalition of Ethnic Minority Nurse Associations (NCEMNA) President Debra A. Toney, PhD, RN, FAAN. “Civil rights and social movements throughout history offer the blueprint, which demonstrates that diligent allyship is key to progress. To the nurses that challenge racism in the workplace, do not get dismayed by inaction, but continue to raise your voice and be a change agent for good.”

Many respondents across the Hispanic (69%) and Asian (73%) populations as well as other communities of color (74%) reported that they have personally experienced racism in the workplace. Overwhelmingly, the survey findings indicate that Black nurses are more likely to both personally experience and confront acts of racism. Most Black nurses who responded (72%) say that there is a lot of racism in nursing compared to 29% of white nurse respondents. The majority (92%) of Black respondents have personally experienced racism in the workplace from their leaders (70%), peers (66%) and the patients in their care (68%). Over three-fourths of Black nurses surveyed expressed that racism in the workplace has negatively impacted their professional well-being.

“The acts of exclusion, incivility, disrespect and denial of professional opportunities that our nurses have reported through this survey, especially our Black, Hispanic and Asian nurses, is unacceptable,” said Commission Co-lead and National Association of Hispanic Nurses (NAHN) President Adrianna Nava, PhD, MPA, MSN, RN. “Racism is a trauma that leaves a lasting impact on a person’s mental, spiritual, and physical health as well as their overall quality of life. As the largest health care workforce in the country, we must come together to address racism in nursing as the health of our nation depends on the health and well-being of our nurses.”

Since its inception in January of 2021, the Commission has been intentional and bold in leading a national discussion to address racism in nursing. The Commission has convened listening sessions with Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) nurses and hosted a virtual summit focused on activism with foremost subject matter experts. Collaborating with top scholars on the issue, the Commission developed a new definition of racism to establish a baseline for holding conversations, reflecting on individual or collective behaviors, and setting a foundation for the work ahead.

“The collective voices and experiences of BIPOC nurses nationally have provided a call for overdue accountability within the nursing profession to acknowledge and address the structural racism rooted within nursing, especially policies that have anti-Black and anti-Indigenous histories,” said Commission Co-lead and Member-at-Large Daniela Vargas, MSN, MPH, MA-Bioethics, RN, PHN. “The next generation of BIPOC nurses deserve more than performative activism and empty words that continue to yield no progress toward structural changes within the nursing profession or racial equity. The breadth of the nursing profession through the Code of Ethics for Nurses holds all nurses accountable for calling out racism and replacing racist policies rooted in white supremacy with ethical and just policies that promote and implement accountability, equity, and justice for nurses and the communities that we serve.”

Nursing’s challenges with the issue of racism are reflective of the larger society. As a profession, we need to confront these same challenges with racial inequities within the profession. As such, the Commission’s work is urgent to create safe and liberating environments for all nurses so that the profession exemplifies inclusivity, diversity, and equity. The Commission urges all nurses across every health care setting and environment to join us in boldly confronting systemic racism. We must address upstream sources of racism in order to build sustained safe and effective environments of optimal care delivery ideal for every nurse and every patient regardless of race, origin or background. Nurses can learn more and share a story of experiencing racism or being an ally for change today.

*Data was collected through a survey administered by the National Commission to Address Racism in Nursing Between October 7-31, 2021, 5,623 nurses completed this survey. *

Hospitals Recruit International Nurses to Fill Pandemic Shortages

Hospitals Recruit International Nurses to Fill Pandemic Shortages

BILLINGS, Mont. — Before Mary Venus was offered a nursing job at a hospital here, she’d never heard of Billings or visited the United States. A native of the Philippines, she researched her prospective move via the internet, set aside her angst about the cold Montana winters and took the job, sight unseen.

Venus has been in Billings since mid-November, working in a surgical recovery unit at Billings Clinic, Montana’s largest hospital in its most populous city. She and her husband moved into an apartment, bought a car and are settling in. They recently celebrated their first wedding anniversary. Maybe, she mused, this could be a “forever home.”

“I am hoping to stay here,” Venus said. “So far, so good. It’s not easy, though. For me, it’s like living on another planet.”Originally published in Kaiser Health News.

Administrators at Billings Clinic hope she stays, too. The hospital has contracts with two dozen nurses from the Philippines, Thailand, Kenya, Ghana and Nigeria, all set to arrive in Montana by summer. More nurses from far-off places are likely.

Billings Clinic is just one of the scores of hospitals across the U.S. looking abroad to ease a shortage of nurses worsened by the pandemic. The national demand is so great that it’s created a backlog of health care professionals awaiting clearance to work in the U.S. More than 5,000 international nurses are awaiting final visa approval, the American Association of International Healthcare Recruitment reported in September.

“We are seeing an absolute boom in requests for international nurses,” said Lesley Hamilton-Powers, a board member of AAIHR and a vice president for Avant Healthcare Professionals in Florida.

Avant recruits nurses from other countries and then works to place them in U.S. hospitals, including Billings Clinic. Before the pandemic, Avant would typically have orders from hospitals for 800 nurses. It currently has more than 4,000 such requests, Hamilton-Powers said.

“And that’s just us, a single organization,” added Hamilton-Powers. “Hospitals all over the country are stretched and looking for alternatives to fill nursing vacancies.”

Foreign-born workers make up about a sixth of the U.S. nursing workforce, and the need is increasing, nursing associations and staffing agencies report, as nurses increasingly leave the profession. Nursing schools have seen an increase in enrollmentsince the pandemic, but that staffing pipeline has done little to offset today’s demand.

In fact, the American Nurses Association in September urged the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to declare the shortage of nurses a national crisis.

CGFNS International, which certifies the credentials of foreign-born health care workers to work in America, is the only such organization authorized by the federal government. Its president, Dr. Franklin Shaffer, said more hospitals are looking abroad to fill their staffing voids.

“We have a huge demand, a huge shortage,” he said.

Billings Clinic would hire 120 more nurses today if it could, hospital officials said. The staffing shortage was significant before the pandemic. The added demands and stress of covid have made it untenable.

Greg Titensor, a registered nurse and the vice president of operations at Billings Clinic, noted that three of the hospital’s most experienced nurses, all in the intensive care unit with at least 20 years of experience, recently announced their retirements.

“They are getting tired, and they are leaving,” Titensor said.

Last fall’s surge of covid cases resulted in Montana having the highest rate in the nation for a time, and Billings Clinics’ ICU was bursting with patients. Republican Gov. Greg Gianforte sent the National Guard to Billings Clinic and other Montana hospitals; the federal government sent pharmacists and a naval medical team.

While the surge in Montana has subsided, active case numbers in Yellowstone County — home to the hospital — are among the state’s highest. The Billings Clinic ICU still overflows, mostly with covid patients, and signs still warn visitors that “aggressive behavior will not be tolerated,” a reminder of the threat of violence and abuse health care workers endure as the pandemic grinds on.

Like most hospitals, Billings Clinic has sought to abate its staffing shortage with traveling nurses — contract workers who typically go where the pandemic demands. The clinic has paid up to $200 an hour for their services, and, at last fall’s peak, had as many as 200 traveling nurses as part of its workforce.

The scarcity of nurses nationally has driven those steep payments, prompting members of Congress to ask the Biden administration to investigate reported gouging by unscrupulous staffing agencies.

Whatever the cause, satisfying the hospital’s personnel shortage with traveling nurses is not sustainable, said Priscilla Needham, Billings Clinic’s chief financial officer. Medicare, she noted, doesn’t pay the hospital more if it needs to hire more expensive nurses, nor does it pay enough when a covid patient needs to stay in the hospital longer than a typical covid patient.

From July to October, the hospital’s nursing costs increased by $6 million, Needham said. Money from the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the CARES Act has helped, but she anticipated November and December would further drive up costs.

Dozens of agencies place international nurses in U.S. hospitals. The firm that Billings Clinic chose, Avant, first puts the nurses through instruction in Florida in hopes of easing their transition to the U.S., said Brian Hudson, a company senior vice president.

Venus, with nine years of experience as a nurse, said her stateside training included clearing cultural hurdles like how to do her taxes and obtain car insurance.

“Nursing is the same all over the world,” Venus said, “but the culture is very different.”

Shaffer, of CGFNS International, said foreign-born nurses are interested in the U.S. for a variety of reasons, including the opportunity to advance their education and careers, earn more money or perhaps get married. For some, said Avant’s Hudson, the idea of living “the American dream” predominates.

The hitch so far has been getting the nurses into the country fast enough. After jobs are offered and accepted, foreign-born nurses require a final interview to obtain a visa from the State Department, and there is a backlog for those interviews. Powers explained that, because of the pandemic, many of the U.S. embassies where those interviews take place remain closed or are operating for fewer hours than usual.

While the backlog has receded in recent weeks, Powers described the delays as challenging. The nurses waiting in their home countries, she stressed, have passed all their necessary exams to work in the U.S.

“It’s been very frustrating to have nurses poised to arrive, and we just can’t bring them in,” Powers said.

Once they arrive, the international nurses in Billings will remain employees of Avant, although after three years the clinic can offer them permanent positions. Clinic administrators stressed that the nurses are paid the same as its local nurses with equivalent experience. On top of that, the hospital pays a fee to Avant.

More than 90% of Avant’s international nurses choose to stay in their new communities, Hudson said, but Billings Clinic hopes to better that mark. Welcoming them to the city will be critical, said Sara Agostinelli, the clinic’s director of diversity, equity, inclusion and belonging. She has even offered winter driving lessons.

The added diversity will benefit the city, Agostinelli said. Some nurses will bring their spouses; some will bring their children.

“We will help encourage what Billings looks like and who Billings is,” she said.

Pae Junthanam, a nurse from Thailand, said he was initially worried about coming to Billings after learning that Montana’s population is nearly 90% white and less than 1% Asian. The chance to advance his career, however, outweighed the concerns of moving. He also hopes his partner of 10 years will soon be able to join him.

Since his arrival in November, Junthanam said, his neighbors have greeted him warmly, and one shop owner, after learning he was a nurse newly arrived from Thailand, thanked him for his service.

“I am far from home, but I feel like this is like another home for me,” he said.

NNU: Lack of “Good, Permanent” Nursing Jobs and Industry Greed are Driving Staffing Crisis

NNU: Lack of “Good, Permanent” Nursing Jobs and Industry Greed are Driving Staffing Crisis

“Understaffing is not the result of the nursing shortage, but the cause of it,” Zenei Triunfo-Cortez, RN, president of National Nurses United (NNU), told Congressional leaders this week.

Triunfo-Cortez and frontline RNs from across the country explained the understaffing crisis at a Congressional briefing, which accompanied the launch of a new NNU report on the issue.

The RNs described first hand to members of Congress the many ways that the hospital industry, in pursuit of profits, has intentionally created the intolerable working conditions under which many nurses are unwilling to practice and has led to current crisis levels of unsafe staffing. The briefing was co-hosted by Rep. Jan Schakowsky, sponsor of H.R. 3165, the Nurse Staffing Standards for Hospital Patient Safety and Quality Care Act.

 U.S. Rep Janice Schakowsky, from Illinois's 9th congressional district.

U.S. Rep Janice Schakowsky, from Illinois’s 9th congressional district.

“Right now, there are no federal mandates regulating the number of patients that a registered nurse can care for at one time in U.S. hospitals. This is dangerous – for nurses, for patients, for all Americans. This is why I introduced the Nurse Staffing Standards for Hospital Patient Safety and Quality Care Act (H.R. 3165), to require hospitals to develop annual safe staffing plans with the input of direct care nurses,” said Rep. Jan Schakowsky.

Schakowsky continued: “Even before the pandemic, registered nurses have consistently been required to care for more patients than is safe. Nurses have been pleading with hospitals to give them the staff that they need. Yet hospitals say they cannot find enough nurses and cannot afford to pay permanent nurses more in wages. This comprehensive report shows that is incorrect. There is no shortage of registered nurses. There IS a shortage of good, permanent nursing jobs where registered nurses are fully valued for their work. We celebrate nurses. We call them heroes. If we truly value their work and their sacrifices, we must give them the support that they are asking for.”

Nurses from across the country, from California to Washington, D.C., and Michigan to Florida, shared their stories. View the nurses’ testimony here.

This manufactured staffing crisis is detailed in NNU’s new report, “Protecting Our Front Line: Ending the Shortage of Good Nursing Jobs and the Industry-Created Short Staffing Crisis.” The report explains the methods the hospital industry has used for decades before the pandemic that have driven nurses away from the bedside and states that hospitals have been:

  • Adopting policies of not supplying enough RN staff to safely care for patients
  • Cutting corners at work that endanger nurses’ health and safety, including refusal to provide necessary PPE to RNs during the pandemic until they were forced to do so
  • Disrespecting nurse judgment and autonomy by fragmenting, deskilling, and replacing aspects of their profession
  • Resisting hiring RNs from associate degree programs—an elitist practice that exacerbates the staffing crisis and undermines the nursing workforce’s racial and ethnic diversity

The report explains how these hospital industry practices played out during the Covid-19 pandemic and caused irreparable harm to registered nurses by creating unsafe workplaces that led to their mental health distress, moral injury, and hundreds of RN deaths.

On the matter of workforce diversity, the report notes,

“Although there is no general nursing shortage, the lack of racial, ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic diversity within the current nursing workforce reflects the need for increasing the numbers of and support for socioeconomically diverse registered nurses from BIPOC communities and other underserved communities. Racial and socioeconomic diversity within the nursing workforce is crucial for both improving our nation’s health and achieving health equity.”

Finally, the report proposes a number of immediate and long-term legislative and regulatory solutions that Congress and the executive branch could take to retain and grow the nursing workforce. Key recommendations include:

  • Pass federal safe staffing ratios legislation
  • Make the meeting of minimum safe staffing requirements a condition of getting Medicare reimbursements
  • Protect RNs’ health and safety at work
  • Strengthen union protections
  • Expand free, public community college nursing programs
  • Reform and expand the Nurse Corps Loan Repayment Program
  • Beef up financial assistance for nursing programs that improve workforce diversity

“These patients can go south in an instant; you need to watch them like hawks,” said June Browne, RN, who works in the multi-system intensive care unit at Osceola Regional Medical Center in Kissimmee, Fla. and explained that ICU nurses who should typically be assigned only one or a maximum of two patients at her hospital were routinely assigned three and up to four patients on one shift. “These patients cannot be left alone. But now I hear an alarm ringing in another room, letting me know something is wrong with another patient. What am I to do? Who do I help? I am being asked to make an impossible decision with someone’s life hanging in the balance.”

Zenei Cortez, RN, National Nurses United.

Zenei Trifuno Cortez, RN, President of National Nurses United.

The story is frighteningly similar around the country. Leah Rasch, RN, who works at Sparrow Hospital in Lansing, Mich., said her community is dealing with a massive surge of Covid patients but that management has provided “horrendous” staffing levels. “I simply cannot do my job well when I’m responsible for caring for eight Covid patients at one time,” said Rasch. “We are just trying to keep them breathing and keep them alive long enough to pass them off to the nurse on the next shift. One of the most heartbreaking things is that when a patient is passing away, I often don’t have time to even sit with them because I am trying to keep someone else alive. It is heartbreaking to know that anyone is dying alone. I can’t tell you how brutal that is and how brutal it feels.”

All the nurses encouraged lawmakers to help pass NNU-endorsed current pending federal safe staffing bills, S. 1567 and H.R. 3165, as well as support the many recommendations outlined in NNU’s report.

“Nurses need the backing of a union to be able to speak up safely at work, and patients, no matter where they get sick in the country, deserve safe, quality patient care that we believe, in the face of hospital industry greed, can only be achieved through RN-to-patient minimum staffing ratios,” said Triunfo-Cortez. “That’s why it’s so critical for Congress to pass the PRO Act, the safe staffing legislation we have proposed, and all the rest of the commonsense recommendations we lay out in this report.”

National Nurses United is the country’s largest and fastest-growing union and professional association of registered nurses, with more than 175,000 members nationwide.

Mentoring: A CUNY School of Professional Studies Nursing Student’s Power Enhancer

Mentoring: A CUNY School of Professional Studies Nursing Student’s Power Enhancer

Power is defined as the capacity to knowingly participate in change for wellbecoming (Barrett, 2015). Barrett (1986) assumes that everybody has power, but at times people may experience powerlessness depending on life circumstances. Mentoring is a modality that can help students overcome barriers that hinder their power to excel in their programs and as professionals in the field.

Mentoring has been used in nursing to help both nurses and nursing students grow and advance in their careers. It has been depicted as important to the growth of nursing (Navarra et al., 2017) and as a catalyzer for increasing diversity and the inclusion of minorities in nursing (Talley et al., 2016). It is not surprising that mentoring was cited as a modality that can help nurses excel. Excel is one of the components of the American Nurses Association (ANA) 2020-2021 Year of the Nurse theme: “Excel, Lead, Innovate” (Indiana State Nursing Association, 2021). In addition, mentoring fits into the mission of the CUNY School of Professional Studies (CUNY SPS), which is to offer customized programs that are responsive to its students’ needs, and its vision to enable students to grow and excel (CUNY School of Professional Studies, n.d.). Mentoring also aligns with the CUNY SPS nursing program’s mission to guide students in attaining the necessary tools (knowledge, skills, values, and ability to make sound judgment) to excel in the profession of nursing (CUNY SPS Nursing Department, n.d.).

The nursing program at CUNY SPS is a fully online program that offers many opportunities for nurses to further their education and climb higher in the profession. It includes a BS in nursing and four BS dual joint programs that ensure a seamless transition from Borough of Manhattan Community, Bronx Community, La Guardia, and Queensborough Community College. It also offers several MS degrees in nursing informatics, nursing organizational leadership, and nursing education, as well as an accelerated RN to BS-MS in nursing informatics.

The CUNY SPS nursing program uses two unique mentoring initiatives that target new students in the BSN program. The Black Male Initiative (BMI) is a CUNY-wide initiative that facilitates retention and degree completion success for Black and Hispanic men in higher education. The BMI program, which was designed to level the playing field of inequity and inequality in higher education, uses “a peer-to-peer mentoring model”. At CUNY SPS, the BMI program is used to enhance its Career Ladders scholarship program and to implement the BMI mentoring model (CUNY School of Professional Studies, 2021). It takes into account cultural differences and trains experienced high-performing students to serve as culturally competent peer mentors for new and struggling nursing students. Peer facilitation has been shown to boost both peer facilitators’ and students’ confidence (Davis and Richardson, 2017).

At the beginning of the fall semester, the CUNY SPS nursing department launched its first mentoring program. The aim of the program is to support nursing students in their journey to professional nursing. This decision was spearheaded by the need to provide support to adult students who very often are juggling school with full-time work and family, in addition to other life responsibilities. These realities were worsened by the COVID pandemic. The nursing department’s mentoring program is voluntary for both the mentor and the mentee. It targets new students entering the BSN programs. In contrast to the BMI peer mentoring program, the mentors are professional nurses who are active in the profession. Although all the mentors are currently CUNY SPS nursing faculty who volunteered to participate, mentors can also be professional nurses outside of the program. Careful measures are taken so as not to pair students to faculty who teach them. The hope is for students to use this resource for career guidance, confidence building, and collegial support.  As we continue to evolve in an ever-changing world, it is our hope that these two mentoring opportunities can support our students’ aspirations, facilitate their ascent to higher grounds, and increase their power. As they knowingly ‘participate in change for their wellbecoming’, so too will those they serve. “Power is being aware of what one is choosing to do, feeling free to do it, and doing it intentionally” (Barrett, 2015, p 498).


Barrett, E. A. M. (1986). Investigation of the principle of helicy: the relationship of human field motion and power.
Explorations on Martha Roger’s Science of Unitary Human Beings, 173-184.

Barrett, E. A. M. (2015). Barrett’s theory of power as knowing participation in change. In M. C. Smith and M. E. Parker (Eds.), Nursing theories and Nursing Practice (4th ed. pp. 495-508). F. A. Davis Company.

CUNY School of Professional Studies, (n. d). Mission and vision statement.

CUNY School of Professional Studies (2021). CUNY grant to fund career ladders mentoring program.

Davis, E. and Richardson, S. (2017). How peer facilitation can help nursing students develop their skills. British Journal of Nursing, (26)21, 1187-1191

Department of Nursing, CUNY School of Professional Studies (n.d.). Bachelor of Science in Nursing.

Indiana State Nurses Association (2021, May). Year of the Nurse 2020-2021 How to celebrate: Suggestions for celebrating & elevating nursing. ISNA Bulletin, 47(3), 10-11

Talley, C. Talley, H., and Collins-McNeil, J., (2016). The Continuing quest for parity: HBCU nursing students’ perspectives on nursing and nursing education. Journal of Best Practices in Health Professions Diversity: Research, Education, and Policy. 9(2), 1247-1262

What’s on the Menu Matters in Health Care for Diverse Patients

What’s on the Menu Matters in Health Care for Diverse Patients

Food is a powerful part of community and medicine. It has the potential to build connections, elicit nostalgia, spark joy, mark celebration and promote healing.

It also plays a role in determining whether the health care system is inclusive and equitable.

I study the challenges that older adults and their family caregivers face in the U.S. health care system, especially for those from racial or ethnic minority communities. Health disparities, such as unequal access to care based on race and ethnicity, affect many communities in the U.S.

Originally published in The Conversation - USE THIS LOGO

Sociocultural characteristics such as language, skin color, religious beliefs and immigrant status can present access barriers to high-quality health care. I’ve found that food can also be a source of alienation and exclusion in the U.S. health care system. To many patients, it is a salient reminder that the system was not built for them.

Current food standards at health facilities

Current regulations around food in health care environments such as hospitals and long-term care facilities emphasize occupational and food safety. Dietary quality standards are based on clinical need, and specialized foods cater to patients who have difficulty chewing or swallowing, for instance. Health care facilities and the organizations providing menu recommendations to them consistently advertise an alignment with taste preferences, allergy-related needs and nutritional quality.

Although some facilities offer kosher and halal options, culturally inclusive options are often neglected. For instance, some facility menus prominently feature sandwiches and salads that only reflect American cuisine. Without culturally inclusive menus, patients might be given foods that don’t align with their cultural or religious preferences. As one family caregiver I interviewed for my ongoing study of older Asian immigrants from multiple ethnic communities described, “My mother-in-law would get to the nursing home and my father-in-law hadn’t eaten all day until 5 o’clock. He likes to eat roti and curry for lunch and dinner, but they would just give him a sandwich.”

Another participant had to help her mother come to terms with a new diet in an assisted living facility. “So she’s in this new place and one day they served kielbasa and sauerkraut, and she’s looking at it like, ‘What’s that?’ and I was like ‘Oh, sausage, you’re not going to like that, and [sauerkraut] … you’re not going to like that either.’”

Subsequently, these patients may lack important nutrients to manage their health conditions and maintain their weight. Undernourishment can cause negative physical and mental health effects, including frailty, or an increased vulnerability to adverse health conditions and diseases, and depression. Functional decline due to undernourishment can also lead to an increased risk of falls, hospitalization and death.

The caregivers I interviewed believed that the health care system wouldn’t be able to accommodate their relatives’ needs and felt resigned that it would not change. As one caregiver said, “I would say that the hospitals need a lot more work. My mom is quite religious and also has diet restrictions. When she went to the hospital, all those days, most of the time she was not eating at all.”

Improving patient health and well-being

Offering culturally inclusive foods in health care facilities has the potential to support mental well-being and even promote joy among older adults. It can foster a sense of belonging and community in a place where it can be difficult to form relationships. It could also help patients and their families understand the types of treatment-aligned meals they can prepare and eat at home.

Culturally inclusive food may also be critical to helping patients feel they are respected and being treated with dignity. This is especially the case when they may be adjusting to language differences or unfamiliar healing traditions. It could build their trust in their clinicians and the health care system by demonstrating commitment to supporting diverse patients.

Supporting caregivers and the local community

A health care system that offers inclusive foods supports more than just patients.

Family caregivers have myriad responsibilities, including helping their relatives with transportation and dressing themselves. The caregivers in my study often must also prepare and transport food to ensure that their relatives are eating. One participant estimated that “it was about an extra half an hour to an hour every day to prepare the food and then bring it in … going straight from my workplace to the hospital.”

The local community could also benefit. Health care organizations could work with local vendors that supply ingredients from different ethnic traditions, economically supporting the community. Health care facilities could also employ chefs and dietitians from diverse backgrounds to ensure meal quality.

Finally, the U.S. health care workforce is becoming increasingly diverse and multicultural. But health care workers from racial and ethnic minority communities still grapple with hiding their cultural identities to belong in the workplace. Having access to traditional foods may help health care workers feel more included in their workplace, or at least alleviate some of the burden to “fit in” by beginning to build an organization that welcomes diversity.

Emerging approaches to cultural inclusion

Implementing culturally inclusive meals across the country’s health care system requires a concerted and long-term effort. In a health care environment where every penny is pinched, it might be hard for facilities to come up with multiple choices at mealtime. It requires revisiting regulations around dietary quality in health care facilities and ensuring cultural sensitivityamong care providers and staff. It also requires facilities to have the human resources, funding, knowledge and support to ensure these efforts can be sustained.

Some health care facilities have already dedicated considerable effort to provide culturally inclusive meals to patients and residents. Holy Name Medical Center in Teaneck, New Jerseyoffers a bowl of rice to its its Asian American patients instead of a sandwich, and warm instead of cold water to drink per cultural preference. Rather than depending solely on individual workers to modify their practices, they emphasize a system-level commitment to inclusion and educate clinicians and other health care workers on different aspects of Asian cultures.

Similarly, one of the assisted- and independent-living facilities owned by Bria Health Services near Chicago has a special unit catering to the dietary, language and cultural preferences of South Asian adults. It’s not clear that segregated units are necessarily the ideal answer – ideally anyone at any facility would be served culturally appropriate and appetizing food. But it’s a starting point.

Achieving a strong and inclusive health care system requires ensuring it is built for everyone. And food is one fundamental way to do it.

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